HST 101. Western Civilization to 1700. (3 h)

Survey of ancient, medieval, and early modern history to 1700. Focus varies with instructor. (CD, D)

HST 102. Europe and the World in the Modern Era. (3 h)

Survey of modern Europe from 1700 to the present. Focus varies with instructor. (CD, D)

HST 103. World Civilizations to 1500. (3 h)

Survey of the ancient, classical and medieval civilizations of Eurasia with a brief look at American and sub-Saharan societies. Focus varies with instructor. (CD, D)

HST 104. World Civilizations since 1500. (3 h)

Survey of the major civilizations of the world in the modern and contemporary periods. Focus varies with instructor. (CD, D)

HST 105. Africa in World History. (3 h)

Examines the continent of Africa from prehistory to the present in global perspective, as experienced and understood by Africans themselves. Also listed as AAS 105. (CD, D)

HST 106. Medieval World Civilizations. (3 h)

Provides an overview of world civilizations in the period generally understood as "medieval," from 600 C.E. to 1600 C.E. The course examines cultures and scoieties in East Asia, India, Africa, and the Americas as well as Europe and asks if there is such a thing as a "medieval" world history. What characteristics do these widely differing cultures and geographic areas share, and where do they differ? (CD, D)

HST 107. Middle East & the World. (3 h)

Examines, in its global context, the Middle East region from the inception of Islam in the 7th century to the 20th century. Combines an introduction to Islamic civilization in its central lands with a close study of its interaction with other societies. (CD, D)

HST 108. Americas and the World. (3 h)

Examines North, Central and South America in global perspectives from premodern times to the present with particular attention to political, economic, social, and cultural developments and interactions. (CD, D)

HST 109. Asia and the World. (3 h)

Overview of Asia (primarily East, Southeast, and South Asia) since 1500 with emphasis on economic, diplomatic, cultural, and religious interactions with the outside world. (CD, D)

HST 110. Atlantic World since 1500. (3 h)

Examines the major developments that have linked the civilizations bordering the Atlantic Ocean from 1500 to the present. Themes include exploration; commerce; European colonization and indigenous responses; disease; religious conversion and revivalism; mestizo and creole culture; imperial warfare; enlightenment; revolution; slavery and abolition; extractive economies; nationalism; 'scientific racism;' invented traditions; the black diaspora and negritude; decolonization; the Cold War; segregation and apartheid; dictatorship; neoliberalism; and globalization. Also listed as AAS 106. (CD, D)

HST 112. Big History: A History of the Cosmos and Humanity's Place In It. (3 h)

Beginning 13.7 billion years ago and drawing on the sciences, social sciences, and history, this course offers a contemporary understanding of how the physical, social, and mental worlds people inhabit came to be. Its effort to integrate disciplines that usually remain unconnected should appeal to those who want to see how the pieces of education fit together. (CD, D)

HST 113. Health, Disease and Healing in World History. (3 h)

Examines political, economic, and cultural responses to sickness and disease in global historical context, paying particular attention to the intersection of religion and healing, as well as race, class, and gender, in ancient, medieval, early modern, pre-colonial, colonial, and post-colonial societies. (D)

HST 114. Gender and Sexuality in World History. (3 h)

Introduces the global and historical breadth of gender and sexual systems. Foundational and current approaches to cross-cultural historical analysis of masculinity, women’s rights, and differences between LGBTQ identities and other models. Also listed as WGS 214. (CD, D)

HST 119. Venice and the World. (3 h)

The history of Venice is intertwined with many of the central themes of world history. Students will examine the history of Venice from its foundation to the present day, examining the ongoing reciprocal interactions between the city-state, Europe, and the wider world. Offered in Venice only. (CD, D)

HST 120. Formation of Europe: Habsburg Empire and its Successor States. (3 h)

The development of Central and East-Central Europe as a multiethnic unity under the Habsburgs, 1526-1918, and its dissolution into successor states and subsequent interactions, 1918-1989. Offered in Vienna. (D)

HST 121. London and the World. (3 h)

Introduction to London's history as a global city since the 16th century, focusing on exploration, empire, industrialization, and immigration. (CD, D)

HST 150. United States History. (3 h)

Survey of U.S. history from the colonial period to the present.

HST 151. The Golden Age of Burgundy. (1.5 h)

Burgundian society, culture, and government in the reigns of Philip the Bold, John the Fearless, Philip the Good, and Charles the Rash, 1384-1477. Offered in Dijion.

HST 161. History Museums. (1.5 h)

Introduces students to history museums and surveys the major issues involved in the collection and display of historical objects, discusses the impact of social history on museum interpretations, and traces the ethical issues and public controversies stemming from the treatment of historical topics in museum settings.

HST 162. History of Wake Forest. (1.5 h)

A survey of the history of Wake Forest from its beginning, including its written and oral traditions. May include a visit to the town of Wake Forest.

HST 171. Historical Biography. (1.5 h)

Study of biographies of men and women who have influenced specific histories and civilizations. May be repeated for credit if topic differs.

HST 172. Historical Novels. (1.5 h)

The role of the historical past in selected works of fiction. May be repeated for credit if topic varies.

HST 173. Historical Films. (1.5 h)

Examines the value of film as a source for understanding the past. Includes viewing and discussing historical films in relation to primary and secondary source texts. May be repeated for credit if topic varies.

HST 206. The Early Middle Ages. (3 h)

European history from the end of the ancient world to the mid-12th century, stressing social and cultural developments.

HST 207. The High Middle Ages Through the Renaissance. (3 h)

European history from the mid-12th through the early 16th centuries, stressing social and cultural developments.

HST 209. Europe: From Renaissance to Revolution. (3 h)

A survey of European history from the 15th to the 18th century. Topics include the voyages of discovery, the military revolution, the formation of the modern state, religious reformation, witchcraft and the rise of modern science, and pre-industrial economic and social structures including women and the family.

HST 214. Atlantic History to 1800: Science, Empire, and Environment. (3 h)

Explores the ways in which western science and empire developed in tandem to control natural resources in the Americas, Africa, and Europe until 1800.

HST 215. Atlantic History from 1800: Science, Empire, Environment. (3 h)

Inquiry into the ways in which colonialism and the practices of western science have shaped social, political, and terrestrial landscapes in the Americas, Africa, and Europe from 1800.

HST 216. General History of Spain. (3 h)

History of Spain from the pre-Roman period to the present day. Counts as elective for the Spanish major. Offered in Salamanca.

HST 217. France to 1774. (3 h)

The history of France from the Paleolithic period to the accession of Louis XVI with particular attention to the early modern period.

HST 218. France since 1815. (3 h)

The history of France from the restoration of the monarchy to the Fifth Republic.

HST 219. Germany to 1871. (3 h)

Social, economic, and political forces leading to the creation of a single German nation-state out of over 1,700 sovereign and semi-sovereign German states.

HST 220. Germany: Unification to Unification 1871 to 1990. (3 h)

The Germans' search for stability and unity in a society riven by conflict and on a continent riven by nationalism.

HST 221. The British Empire to 1815. (3 h)

Explores the early history of the British Empire and imperialism until the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815, including the Elizabethan conquest of Ireland, global trade and exploration, the foundations of the East India Company, captivity and slavery, and revolution in the Atlantic world, with an emphasis on the place of religion, gender, race, and class in imperial rule.

HST 222. The British Empire from 1815. (3 h)

Examines the British Empire and British approaches to imperialism from the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815 through to the Brexit crises of the late 2010s. The course considers both formal and informal British influence in Latin America, the Caribbean, Africa, the Middle East and Asia, analyzing the interconnected political, economic, and socio-cultural drivers and outcomes of imperialism, as well as the many anti-imperial movements that developed in response to British rule.

HST 223. The British Isles to 1750. (3 h)

Discusses religious reformations in the 16th century; political and scientific experiments in the 17th century; and the commercial revolutions of the 18th century. Examines their effect on the way Englishmen and women conceived of their state, their communities and themselves, exploring social relationships and the changing experience of authority. The course also considers England’s relationship to its neighbors, Scotland and Ireland, and these British Isles within the context of early modern Europe.

HST 224. Great Britain since 1750. (3 h)

Addresses topics in British history from the Industrial Revolution to New Labour, with attention to how politics and citizenship were linked to imperial power. Explores industrialization, liberalism and their discontents; colonization, decolonization, and immigration; social and urban riot and reform; world war; and the creation of the welfare state and its dismantling. The course also considers Britain's relationship with Ireland and European integration.

HST 225. History of Venice. (3 h)

The history of Venice from its origin to the fall of the Venetian Republic. Offered in Venice.

HST 226. History of London. (1.5-3 h)

Topographical, social, economic, and political history of London from the earliest times. Lectures, student papers and reports, museum visits and lectures, and on-site inspections. Offered in London.

HST 228. Georgian and Victorian Society Culture. (3 h)

Social and economic transformation of England in the 18th and 19th centuries, with particular attention to the rise of professionalism and developments in the arts. Offered in London.

HST 229. Venetian Society & Culture. (3 h)

An examination of Venetian society, including the role within Venetian life of music, theatre, the church, and civic ritual. Offered in Venice.

HST 230. Russia: Origins to 1865. (3 h)

A survey of the political, social, and economic history of Russia, from its origins to the period of the Great Reforms under Alexander II. Students taking HST 230 cannot receive credit for HST 232/REE 200.

HST 231. Russia and Soviet Union: 1865 to Present. (3 h)

A survey of patterns of socio-economic change from the late imperial period to the present, the emergence of the revolutionary movement, and the development of Soviet rule from its establishment to its collapse. Students taking HST 231 cannot receive credit for HST 232/REE 200.

HST 232. Introduction to Russian and East European Studies. (3 h)

An interdisciplinary survey of Russia and the Soviet Union, including an examination of society, polity, economy, and culture over time. Also listed as REE 200. Students taking HST 232/REE 200 cannot receive credit for HST 230 or 231. (CD)

HST 235. The History of European Jewry from the Middle Ages to the Present. (3 h)

Examines the Jewish historical experience in Europe from the medieval period to the Holocaust and its aftermath. Includes a consideration of social, cultural, economic and political history, and places the particular experience of Jews within the context of changes occurring in Europe from the medieval to the modern period.

HST 236. The Nazi Holocaust to 1941. (3 h)

Explores the preconditions and causes of the Nazi Holocaust and situates the Holocaust within the history of European colonial genocide and the rise of totalitarian regimes. Traces the development and radicalism of Nazism within Germany and discusses Nazi efforts to forge a racially pure state from Hitler's ascension to power in 1933 until the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941. Examines the various ways that Jews and other groups targeted by Nazis responded to the rise of Nazism.

HST 237. The Nazi Holocaust from 1941. (3 h)

Examines the systematic attempt to exterminate European Jewry and other groups targeted by Nazi Germany on account of their perceived racial inferiority. In particular examines the period from the 1941 German invasion of the Soviet Union through the end of the war, and discusses the ghettoization of European Jews, the various means of mass murder, and the aftermath of the Holocaust. This class includes an optional trip to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, DC.

HST 239. Jewish History in the Americas. (3 h)

Examines the rich history of American Jewry from the period of first settlement to the present. Jews have been present in the Americas since the period of Dutch conquest in the mid-seventeenth century. Over the subsequent three and a half centuries, what was once a distant outpost of the Jewish world has today become a major center, and is home to one of the most diverse, populous, successful, and complicated communities in Jewish history.

HST 242. Middle East before 1500. (3 h)

A survey of Middle Eastern history from the rise of Islam to the emergence of the last great Muslim unitary states. The course provides an overview of political history with more in-depth emphasis on the development of Islamic culture and society in the pre-modern era. (CD)

HST 243. Middle East since 1500. (3 h)

A survey of modern Middle Eastern history from the collapse of the last great Muslim unitary states to the present day. Topics include the rise and demise of the Ottoman and Safvid empires, socio-political reform, the impact of colonialism, Islamic reform, the development of nationalism, and contemporary social and economic challenges. (CD)

HST 244. Pre-Modern China to 1850. (3 h)

Study of traditional China to 1850, with an emphasis on the evolution of political, legal and social institutions and the development of Chinese religion, learning and the arts. (CD)

HST 245. Modern China since 1850. (3 h)

Study of modern China from 1850 to the present, focusing on the major political, economic, and cultural transformations occuring in China during this period within the context of modernization, imperialism and (semi) colonialism, world wars and civil wars, revolution and reform, and the ongoing processes of globalization. (CD)

HST 246. Japan before 1600. (3 h)

A survey of Japan from earliest times to the coming of Western imperialism, with emphasis on regional ecologies, economic institutions, cultural practice, military organization, political ideology, and foreign relations. (CD)

HST 247. Japan since 1600. (3 h)

A survey of Japan in the modern world. Topics include political and cultural revolution, state and empire-building, economic "miracles", social transformations, military conflicts, and intellectual dilemmas. (CD)

HST 250. Premodern South Asia. (3 h)

A survey of ancient and medieval South Asia beginning with the Indus Valley civilization to the decline of the Mughal Empire. (CD)

HST 251. Modern South Asia. (3 h)

A survey of colonial and post-colonial South Asia beginning with the political conquest of the British East India Company in the mid-18th century until the present. (CD)

HST 254. American West to 1848. (3 h)

The first half of a two-semester survey course of the North American West, from roughly 1400 to 1850. Topics include indigenous trade and lifeways, contact, conflict, and cooperation between natives and newcomers, exploration and migration, imperial geopolitical rivalries, and various experiences with western landscapes.

HST 255. U.S. West from 1848 to the Present. (3 h)

The second half of a two-semester survey course of the U.S. West, from 1848 to the present. Topics include industrial expansion and urbanization, conflicts with Native Americans, national and ethnic identity formations, contests over natural resources, representations and myths of the West, and religious, cultural, and social diversity.

HST 256. The U.S and the World, 1763-1914. (3 h)

The first half of a two-semester survey on U.S. foreign relations. Major topics explore the economic, political, cultural, and social currents linking the U.S. to Europe, Africa, South America, and Asia between 1763 and 1914. Particular attention is given to the influence of the world system—ranging from empire, war, and migration to industrial competition and economic interdependence—on U.S. diplomacy, commerce, and domestic politics and culture.

HST 257. The U.S and the World since 1914. (3 h)

The second half of a two-semester survey of U.S. foreign relations. Major topics explore the economic, political, cultural and social currents linking the U.S. to Europe, Africa, Latin America, the Middle East and Asia between since 1914. Particular attention is given to the influence of the international system—ranging from hot and cold wars, to decolonization, economic interdependence and transnational businesses and institutions—on U.S. diplomacy, commerce, and domestic politics and culture.

HST 258. Colonial North America. (3 h)

Surveys and explores the encounters between natives and newcomers in North America between 1492 and 1763. Topics include development of new communities and cultures, as well as the roles warfare, trade, race, religion, and slavery played in the creation of "new worlds for all."

HST 259. Revolutionary North America. (3 h)

Examines the transformation that unfolded during the struggles for sovereignty in North America between 1760 and 1800. Considers the political upheavals that converted some British colonists into insurgents and explores the unlikely unification of disparate provinces into a confederated republic.

HST 262. Antebellum America. (3 h)

Examines the sociocultural, economic, religious, and political transformations of American society from the period after the Revolutionary War through the onset of the American Civil War.

HST 263. The U.S. Civil War and Reconstruction. (3 h)

The political, social, and military events of the war and the economic, social, and political readjustments which followed.

HST 264. U.S. History 1877-1933: Industrialization, Urbanization, and Conflict. (3 h)

Political, social, and economic developments in the U.S. from 1877 to 1933 with emphasis on industrialization, urbanization, immigration, growth of Big Business, imperialism, Progressive reform, war, depression, and race, class, and gender conflicts.

HST 265. US History since the New Deal. (3 h)

Political, social, and economic history of the U.S. since 1933 with emphasis on the Depression, wars at home and abroad, unionism, civil rights movements, countercultures, environmentalism, religion, the Imperial Presidency, and liberalism and conservatism.

HST 266. The History of the Slave South. (3 h)

Examines slavery and southern distinctiveness, from the first interactions of Europeans, Native Americans and Africans through the Civil War and Emancipation. Also listed as AAS 266. (CD)

HST 267. The Making of the Modern South since the Civil War. (3 h)

Traces the history of race relations and southern culture, politics, and economics from sharecropping and segregation through political reform, the Civil Rights Movement, and the Republican New South. (CD)

HST 268. African History to 1870. (3 h)

Overview of African history prior to the establishment of European colonial rule, covering the period from the 4th century until 1870. Focuses on sub-Saharan Africa and uses case studies in various regions. (CD)

HST 269. African History since 1850. (3 h)

Overview of African history, beginning with the period following the abolition of the Trans Atlantic Slave Trade and ending with contemporary challenges of independent African nations. Emphasizes sub-Saharan African perspectives, initiatives, and historical agency. (CD)

HST 271. African American History to 1870. (3 h)

Examines the experiences of African-descended people from Africa to America and from slavery to freedom, with each experience - the slave trade, enslavement, and emancipation - marking a fundamental transformation in black lives. Also listed as AAS 271. (CD)

HST 272. African American History since 1870. (3 h)

Examines the experiences of African-descended people from the destruction of slavery to Reconstruction, from rural to urban, and from Jim Crow to Civil Rights, with each experience - emancipation, migration, and enfranchisement - marking a fundamental transformation in black lives. Also listed as AAS 272. (CD)

HST 275. Modern Latin America. (3 h)

Survey of Latin-American history since independence, concentrating on the 20th century. Emphasizes race, gender, revolution, populism, dictatorship, resistance movements, and U.S-Latin American relations. Examines cultural artifacts from multiple genres. (CD)

HST 284. Latin America's Colonial Past. (3 h)

Studies the history of Latin America’s colonial past from the precolonial era to the wars of independence in the early 19th century. Topics include: Conquest controversies; autonomy, adaptation, and resistance in indigenous and African communities; sexuality and the Inquisition; and evolving systems of race, caste, and gender. (CD)

HST 300. History Fin de Siecle Vienna. (3 h)

Examination of major developments in Viennese culture, politics and society from the 1880s to 1918. Important figures to be discussed may include Mahler, Schoenberg, Klimt, Schiele, Kokoshchka, Schnitzler, Musil, Kafka, Freud and Herzl. Offered only in Vienna.

HST 302. Plants of Empire: Power and Pleasure. (3 h)

Study of the social, cultural, and political meaning of plants grown to finance and maintain empires since 1500. Includes analysis of both production and use of plant products like sugar, coffee, and opium.

HST 303. Spaces of Science: Observatory, Laboratory, Field. (3 h)

Examines how new physical spaces and types of workers have shaped the content, practices, and social contours of western science from 1500.

HST 304. Travel, History and Landscape in the Mediterranean. (3 h)

This course considers broader debates about the nature of “Mediterranean” societies in the late medieval and early modern period through case studies of particular places. Topics include cross-cultural cooperation and conflict, travel and travel narratives, the creation of national identities through public history, and contests over development and/or conservation of natural and cultural resources. Offered only in the Mediterranean.

HST 305. Medieval & Early Modern Iberia. (3 h)

Examines the variety of Christian, Muslim, and Jewish cultures that flourished on the Iberian peninsula between the years 700 and 1700. Themes include religious diversity and the imposition of orthodoxy, the formation of nation-states and empires, geographic exploration and discovery, and the economics of empire in the early modern period. (CD)

HST 306. Science, Magic, and Alchemy in Europe, 1400-1700. (3 h)

Examines scientists and magicians in medieval Europe, who developed theoretical models and practical approaches to understand and to manipulate the natural world. Looks at alchemists, who transformed matter to understand it as well as to make things for practical purposes: metals, gems, medicines, and the philosopher's stone.

HST 307. Italian Renaissance. (3 h)

Examination of the economic, political, intellectual, artistic, and social developments in the Italian world from 1350 to 1550. (CD)

HST 308. World of Alexander the Great. (3 h)

An examination of Alexander the Great's conquests and the fusion of Greek culture with those of the Near East, Central Asia, and India. Special emphasis placed on the creation of new political institutions and social customs, modes of addressing philosophical and religious issues, as well as the achievements and limitations of Hellenistic Civilization.

HST 309. European International Relations since World War I. (3 h)

Surveys European International Relations in the 20th century beyond treaties and alliances to the economic, social, and demographic factors that shaped formal arrangements between states. Covers the impact of new forms of international cooperation, pooled sovereignty, and non-governmental organizations on European diplomacy and internal relations.

HST 310. 20th Century Eastern Europe. (3 h)

Examination of the history of 20th century Eastern Europe, including the creation of nation-states, World War II, and the nature of Communist regimes established in the postwar period. Course includes a discussion of the collapse of the Eastern Bloc and the challenges of European integration.

HST 311. Special Topics in History. (1-3 h)

Subject varies with instructor.

HST 311A. Special Topics: American. (1-3 h)

Subject varies with instructor.

HST 311E. Special Topics: European. (1-3 h)

Subject varies with instructor.

HST 311G. Special Topics: General. (1-3 h)

Subject varies with instructor.

HST 311W. Special Topics: Wider World. (1-3 h)

Topic varies with instructor.

HST 312. Jews, Greeks and Romans. (3 h)

Largely from a Jewish context, the course explores the political, religious, social and philosophical values shaped by the collision between Jews, Greeks, and Romans, from the Hellenistic Period to the Middle Ages.

HST 315. Greek History. (3 h)

The development of ancient Greek civilization from the Bronze Age to the end of the Classical Period stressing social institutions, individual character, and freedom of social choice within the framework of cultural, political, and intellectual history.

HST 316. Rome: Republic and Empire. (3 h)

A survey of Roman history and civilization from its beginning to about 500 C.E., with emphasis on the conquest of the Mediterranean world, the evolution of the Republican state, the growth of autocracy, the administration of the empire, and the interaction between Romans and non-Romans.

HST 317. The French Revolution and Napleonic Empire. (3 h)

The revolution and wars that constitute one of the pivotal points in modern history.

HST 318. Weimar Germany. (3 h)

Art, literature, music, and film of Weimar Germany, 1919-1933, in historical context. German or history credit determined at registration. Also listed as GES 331.

HST 320. Write and Record! Diaries and Memoirs of the Nazi Holocaust. (3 h)

Examines a wide range of diaries and memoirs to illuminate the historical period of Nazism, seeking to understand daily life under Nazi rule, the brutality of the perpetrators, and the many responses of Jews forced to live in such circumstances. From Anne Frank's account of hiding in an Amsterdam secret annex to Art Spiegelman's graphic novel of his parent's experience in Auschwitz, the diaries and memoirs of Holocaust victims provide an invaluable resource for historians.

HST 321. Zionism, Palestine, and Israel in Historical Perspective. (3 h)

Investigates both the European causes of Zionism and the Middle Eastern consequences of the establishment of the State of Israel. Through our discussion, students will be introduced to many of the scholarly debates over the history, practices, and consequences of Zionism, the State of Israel, and the Israel-Palestinian conflict.

HST 322. Migrants and Refugees in Modern History. (3 h)

Explores forced migrations and the development of the concept of refuge from the 16th to 20th centuries, drawing on cases from around the world. Considers how states, empires, and non-governmental organizations have handled migrants and refugees, as well as the lived experiences of displaced individuals.

HST 323. Wives, Writers, and Witches: Women and Gender in Early Modern Europe, 1500-1800. (3 h)

Examines the diverse range of women's experiences in early modern Europe, using gender as a lens for analyzing transformations in households, culture, society, and politics between 1500 and 1800. Considers how women negotiated dominant gender ideals and how they contributed to and were impacted by the Renaissance and Reformation, empire, the Scientific Revolution, the Enlightenment, and political revolution.

HST 324. Fashion in the Eighteenth Century. (3 h)

Examines the relationship between consumer culture and democractic politics in the eighteenth-century, focusing on Britain, North America, France, and Haiti. Considers laws regulating dress; the relationship between democracy, political resistance, and costume; the construction of political allegiance through clothes and symbols; and the ways fashion mediated ideas about empire, race, and gender.

HST 325. English Kings, Queens, and Spectacle. (3 h)

Examines how English royal authority was created, legitimized, performed, and challenged, between the reigns of Henry VIII and George III through ritual, image, and text. Topics include: gender and power; court culture; the press and political revolution; popular politics and propaganda; graphic satire; and the commercialization of politics.

HST 326. The Industrial Revolution in England. (3 h)

A study of the social, economic, and political causes and effects of the Industrial Revolution in England. Offered in London.

HST 327. Profit and Power in Britain. (3 h)

Examines economic ideas and British society between 1688 and 1914. Topics include connections between consumption and identity; the relationship of morals to markets; the role of gender and the household; knowledge, technology, and the industrial revolution; and the place of free trade in the political imagination.

HST 328. History of the English Common Law. (3 h)

A study of the origins and development of the English common law and its legacy to modern legal processes and principles.

HST 331. The United States in Age of Empire, 1877 - 1919. (3 h)

Explores the late 19th and early 20th centuries when the United States joined in the global scramble for empire. Examines the domestic and international causes of American imperial expansion; the modes of rule that the U.S. exercised in its formal and informal possessions; and the political and intellectual debates at home and abroad about America's expansion as a world power.

HST 332. The United States and the Global Cold War. (3 h)

Considers United States efforts to secure its perceived interests through "nation building" and economic development in Africa, Latin America, the Middle East, and much of Asia during the Cold War and after. Emphasizes the ideological and cultural dimensions of American intervention.

HST 333. European Diplomacy 1848-1914. (3 h)

The diplomacy of the great powers, with some attention given to the role of publicity in international affairs. Topics include the unification of Italy and of Germany, the Bismarckian system, and the coming of World War I.

HST 334. Mystics, Monarchs, and Masses in South Asian Islam. (3 h)

An introduction to Islam through South Asian social, political, cultural, and intellectual history. (CD)

HST 335. Hindus and Muslims in India, Pakistan, and Beyond. (3 h)

Examines the shared yet different, intertwined yet separate histories of the Hindus and Muslims of modern India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka primarily over the last two centuries. Explores the checkered existence of the two communities in order to understand diversity and questions of coexistence and conflict. (CD)

HST 336. Gender and Power in African History. (3 h)

Examines the close relationship between understandings of gender and power in African societies with particular focus on the last several hundred years. After addressing the sources and methods scholars have used to address these topics, the course examines conceptions of gender and power in pre-colonial African societies, the impact of the colonial period on men and women, the gendered nature of nationalism and independence, and the importance of gender and power to many of Africa’s post-colonial challenges. (CD)

HST 337. Women and Gender in Early America. (3 h)

History of women and gender roles from 1600 through the Civil War, including the social constructions of femininity and masculinity and their political, economic, and cultural significance. (CD)

HST 338. Sexuality, Race and Class in the United States since 1850. (3 h)

History of gender relations from the mid-nineteenth century to the present. Analyzes the varying definitions of femininity and masculinity, the changing notions of sexuality, and the continuity and diversity of gender roles with special attention to race, class, and ethnicity.

HST 339. Sickness and Health in American History. (3 h)

Analysis of major trends in health, sickness, and disease within the broad context of social, political, and economic developments. Examines indigenous healing; colonial medicine; emergence of hospitals and asylums; public health; medical ethics; race, class and gender issues; and natural versus high-tech approaches to health care in the 20th century.

HST 340. Urban Africa. (3 h)

Examines how urban residents have worked to creatively shape some of sub-Saharan Africa’s major transformations. Major topics include the social and cultural fabric of pre-colonial African cities, the impact of colonialism on African towns, cities as sites of revolution and independence, and the contemporary conditions and challenges facing urban residents. While popular imagination suggests that the African past is largely a rural one, many of the continents’ most explosive social and cultural transformations have taken place in its cities. (CD)

HST 341. Africans in the Atlantic World, 1750-1815. (3 h)

Explores Africans' experience in the Atlantic world (Africa, Europe and the Americas) during the era of the slave trade by examining their encounters with Indians and Europeans and their adjustment to slave traders in West Africa. Also listed as AAS 341, AES 341. (CD)

HST 343. The Silk Roads. (3 h)

Explores the global exchanges across land and sea from the Bronze Age to the Early Modern Era, and their impact on the states and stateless societies connected by the Silk Road from China and Japan to the Mediterranean and the British Isles. (CD)

HST 344. Early Modernity in China. (3 h)

This course explores historic transformations in Chinese economy, society, thought, and culture from 1500 to 1800. These developments are placed within their local, global, and comparative context. Students read a wide variety of Chinese primary sources in English translation, including philosophical treatises, literary works, letters, diaries, and memoirs, some of which were written by Jesuit missionaries from Catholic Europe. (CD)

HST 345. Early Modern Global Encounters: China and the World, 1400-1800. (3 h)

Studies the impact of China's encounters with the early modern world. Examines how New World and European developments helped China transform its economy, modes of warfare and empire-building, thought, and culture. Asks how the global circulation of Chinese commodities and culture shaped the early modern world.

HST 347. The Rise of Asian Economic Power since WWII. (3 h)

An exploration of how Japan, South Korea, and China became dominant in world economies. Focus on business practices, foreign trade, government policy, and consumer and labor markets in the process of high-speed economic growth. Concludes with examination of recent challenges of national debt, increasing international competition, and aging societies. (CD)

HST 348. Samurai and Geisha: Fact, Film, and Fiction. (3 h)

Focuses on two well-known groups in Japanese history, the samurai (warriors) and geisha (entertainers). By analyzing historical studies and primary sources, as well as works of fiction and films about samurai and geisha, the course considers how Japanese and Western historians, novelists, and filmmakers have portrayed the two groups and by implication Japan and its history in the modern period. (CD)

HST 349. American Foundations. (3 h)

An interdisciplinary study of American art, music, literature, and social history with particular reference to the art collection at Reynolda House, Museum of American Art. Lectures, discussions, and field trips, including a tour of New York City museums. Term project in American history. Also listed as Art 331, Interdisciplinary Honors 393, 394, and Music 307. Offered at Reynolda House in summer only.

HST 350. World Economic History: Globalization, Wealth and Poverty, 1500-Present. (3 h)

Explores the growth of globalization and its role in the creation of wealth and poverty in both developed and underdeveloped nations. Focus on trade, industrialization, and agricultural and technological advances in global contexts. (CD)

HST 352. Ten Years of Madness: The Chinese Cultural Revolution, 1966 to 1976. (3 h)

A history of the Chinese Cultural Revolution from 1966 to 1976. Examines the origins, consequences, and collective memories of the catastrophic political events and the social and cultural transformations that took place in China during the last decade of Mao's leadership. (CD)

HST 353. War and Society in Early America. (3 h)

Examines the evolution of warfare among the indigenous and colonial societies of North America between 1500 and 1800 and considers the roles of economics, class, gender, race, religion, and ideology in cultures of violence.

HST 354. The Early American Republic. (3 h)

A history of the formative generation of the United States. Considers the dramatic transformations of the constitutional, economic, and racial orders, as well as new performances in politics, national identity, gender, and culture.

HST 356. Jacksonian America 1815-1850. (3 h)

The United States in the age of Jackson, Clay, Calhoun, and Webster.

HST 358. Race, Gender and the Courts. (3 h)

Examines the impact of state and federal court cases upon the evolution of race and gender relations in the U.S. from 1789 to the present. Each case is placed within the political, economic and social historical context for the given time periods. Race includes Native Americans, African Americans, Asian Americans, and Latino Americans. This class will analyze government intervention, inaction, and creative interpretation. (CD)

HST 359. Prostitutes, Machos, and Travestis: Sex and Gender in Latin American History. (3 h)

Explores gender and sexuality across 20th century Latin America and the Caribbean. Applies new theoretical developments in gender, masculinity, and LGBT studies to the region's history of race, revolution, labor, dictatorship, and social movements. Cases include the Mexican, Cuban, and Nicaraguan Revolutions and the Dominican and Argentine dictatorships. (CD)

HST 361. A History of Hip Hop. (3 h)

Scholarly analysis of the historical development and political import of hip hop culture from a transnational Black Studies perspective.

HST 362. American Constitutional History. (3 h)

Origins of the Constitution, the controversies involving the nature of the Union, and constitutional readjustments to meet the new American industrialism.

HST 363. Law, Justice, and Reparations. (3 h)

Introduction to the global praxis of reparative and transformative justice through historical case studies from the ancient world to the present.

HST 365. Modern Native American History. (3 h)

Considers broad historical issues and debates about Native American identity, experiences with and memories of colonialism, cultural preservation and dynamism, and political sovereignty from 1830 to the present. Focuses on individual accounts, tribal case studies, and popular representations of Native people. (CD)

HST 366. Historic Preservation and Conservation. (3 h)

Explores the history of the preservation and conservation movements organized to save historic buildings and landscapes in the U.S. and other nations. Examines the laws, international charters, national, statewide, and local agencies, practices, collaborations, and emerging challenges of historic preservation and conservation.

HST 367. Public History. (3 h)

Introduces students to the major issues involved in the practice, interpretation, and display of history for nonacademic audiences in public settings. Central themes include controversial historical interpretations, the role of history in popular culture, issues and aims in exhibiting history, and the politics of historical memory. Explores some of the many ways people create, convey, and contest history, major themes in community and local history, and the problems and possibilities of working as historians in public settings.

HST 368. U.S. Environmental History. (3 h)

Focuses on human actors and actions while highlighting how the material, or natural, world impacted Americans and shaped the nation. Students will investigate U.S. politics, society, and culture through the lens of the environment while exploring how Americans defined, represented, and used their natural environment over time.

HST 369. Modern Military History. (3 h)

Making war in the modern era, with special attention to the social context of military activity. Counts toward the American distribution for majors. Credit not allowed for both HST 369 and MIL 229.

HST 370. Topics in North Carolina History. (3 h)

A general chronological survey of North Carolina with emphasis on selected topics. May be repeated for credit if topic varies.

HST 371. Transgender History, Identity, and Politics in the U.S. (3 h)

This course explores the experiences of and responses to transgender, gender non-conforming, and intersex (TGI) people in nineteenth-and twentieth-century America. We will examine how scientific/medical authorities, legal authorities, and everyday people have understood and responded to various kinds of gender non-conformity. Same as WGS 305. (CD)

HST 372. Queer Public Histories. (3 h)

Explores how public history projects (oral histories, museums, archives, documentaries) document gay, lesbian, and queer communities in the U.S. Discusses how historical and contemporary LGBTQ stories have been collected and examines the various queer identities that emerge through this process. Same as WGS 306.

HST 373. Anglo-American Relations since 1940. (3 h)

A study of the relations between the United States and Britain from 1940 to the present. Offered in London.

HST 374. Protest and Rebellion in Latin America. (3 h)

A study of the history of protest movements and rebellions in Latin America from primitive and agrarian revolts to mass working class and socialist organizations. (CD)

HST 375. Black Lives. (3 h)

Explores both the lived experience and the historical reality of African Americans. Black lives are profoundly shaped by their group experience, influenced in no small part by the role of racism. The biographical approach individuates historical figures struggling to fashion identity. Topics include character development, intimacy, gender roles, public and private personas, self-deceptions or defenses, and personal perceptions of biases. The craft of writing biography is taught throughout the semester. Also listed as AAS 375. (CD)

HST 376. Civil Rights and Black Consciousness Movements. (3 h)

A social and religious history of the African-American struggle for citizenship rights and freedom from World War II to the present. Also listed as AAS 376. (CD)

HST 378. Race, Memory, and Identity. (3 h)

Explores the collective memory and identity of American-Indian and African-American communities and their response to historical trauma in their cultural imagination, spirituality, and political and social activism. Also listed as AAS 378, REL 348. (CD)

HST 380. America at Work. (3 h)

Examines the American entrepreneurial spirit within the broader context of industrial, social, and economic change from the colonial period to the present and explores the social and cultural meanings attached to work and workers, owners and innovators, businesses and technologies, management and leadership. Also listed as ENT 380. (CD)

HST 381. Religious Utopias and the American Experience. (3 h)

Religious groups of many different origins have found in North America an open space for creating settlements that would embody their ideals. This course surveys a range of such 18th- and 19th-century utopian communities, including Moravians, Rappites, Shakers, and the Oneida and Amana colonies. Also listed as REL 346.

HST 382. Religion in the Development of Higher Education. (3 h)

Examines the role of religious groups in the founding of American colleges and universities and explores how their role has changed across history up through contemporary trends and issues. Major themes include the heritage of religion in European higher education; institutions of higher education founded by specific American religious groups; religion in the liberal arts curriculum; religious activities in student life; the relationship of colleges and universities with religious sponsors and constituents, focusing on controversies such as science and religion; the impact of universities on liberal arts colleges; and the trends toward growth and “secularization” in the last 50 years.

HST 384. Global Outlaws History since 1500. (3 h)

Examines the motivations, ideologies, goals, and behavior of those who have been deemed "outlaws" to international society since 1500, including pirates, terrorists, smugglers, war criminals, and violators of copyright. Analyzes the role of power in creating the global regimes that define and target such activities.

HST 385. History through Film: Bollywood and the Making of Modern India. (3 h)

Juxtaposes historical films made by the world's largest film industry base out of Bombay/Mumbai with textural primary sources and secondary historical works and seeks to understand films as both interpretations and sources of history. Explores specific themes such as nation, gender, caste, and community that are critical to understanding modern Indian and South Asian history and culture. (CD)

HST 387. The Last Great Muslim Empires. (3 h)

Examines, in a comparative way, central themes in the history of the Ottoman, Mughal, and Safavid Empires in the early modern period (1400-1800). Considers the ways in which Muslim rulers fostered political legitimacy, ruled over non-Muslim and heterodox subject populations, and recruited persons of diverse religious and ethnic background into state service. (CD)

HST 388. Nation, Faith, and Gender in the Middle East. (3 h)

Traces the development of nationalism and its interaction with religious, transnational, and gender identities in the Middle East in the 19th and 20th centuries. Topics include Zionism, Abramism, Turkish nationalism, and Islamic revivalism. (CD)

HST 389. The British Empire in the Middle East. (3 h)

Covering the period from the late 18th to late 20th centuries, this course considers British involvement in the Middle East, exploring the political, economic, social and cultural facets of imperial power, decolonization and post-colonial international relations. (CD)

HST 390. Research Seminar. (4 h)

Offered by members of the faculty on topics of their choice. A paper is required.

HST 391. Making History. (3 h)

Seminar explores how historians make history through analysis, synthesis, and interpretation. Open to all students. All honors students must take HST 391.

HST 392. Individual Research. (4 h)

Writing of a major research paper. May be taken in lieu of HST 390. P-POI.

HST 395. Internship in History. (1-3 h)

Internship in the community that involves both hands-on experience and academic study. Juniors and seniors only. P—POI.

HST 397. Historical Writing Tutorial. (1.5 h)

Individual supervision of historical writing to improve a project initiated in HST 390 or HST 392. Does not count toward major or minor requirements. P-POI.

HST 398. Individual Study. (1-3 h)

Project for a qualified student in an area of study not otherwise available in the department; subject to approval. Work must be equivalent to an upper-level course.

HST 399. Directed Reading. (1-3 h)

Concentrated reading in an area of study not otherwise available. P-POI.